Paratype Typographic Glossary

Garaldes

Generally considered “warm” or friendly typestyle, thanks to its origins in Renaissance humanism. Garaldes means the faces based on the work of Francesco Griffo, circa 1499 for Venetian typographer Aldus Manutius (1447–1515) and also the faces based on the types that were designed by French punch cutter Claude Garamond (ca. 1490–1561). The name Garaldes was invented by French scholar Maximilien Vox in 1954 and means the faces similar to GARamond and ALDus. After the death of Aldus in 1515, leadership in type producing shifted to France. There the family Estienne (Stephanus in Latin) printed many books that were beautiful as well as textually significant. Other famous 16th-century French printers were Simon de Colines and Geoffroy Tory. The finest printing of all these Frenchmen was done with types that were designed by Claude Garamond. The main characteristics of that typefaces are low contrast with diagonal stress, cove or bracketed serifs, and a handwriting influence. Acsenders are significantly higher than cap height. First italics were independent designs, and were generally used completely separately. Then italic became additional style to the roman, the slanted capitals appeared.
See also Garalde in Classification section.

Glyph

(1) The actual shape (bit pattern, outline) of a character image. For example, an italic ‘a’ and a roman ‘a’ are two different glyphs representing the same underlying character. In this strict sense, any two images which differ in shape constitute different glyphs. In this usage, “glyph” is a synonym for “character image”, or simply “image”.
(2) A kind of idealized surface form derived from some combination of underlying characters in some specific context, rather than an actual character image. In this broad usage, two images would constitute the same glyph whenever they have essentially the same topology (as in oblique ‘a’ and roman ‘a’), but different glyphs when one is written with a hooked top and the other without (the way one prints an ‘a’ by hand).

Gothic

(1) Traditionally a term describing the lettering style of Northern Europe during the period when Johann Gutenberg developed movable type, adapted as the first type.
(2) In the United States, since the 1830s, the term applied to Sans Serif types issued by European typefounders after 1820. The term is never used, however, to describe Sans Serif such as Futura, circa 1926.

Grave

An accent used on vowels – à è ì ò ù – in French, Italian, Portuguese, Catalan, Vietnamese and many other languages. In romanized Chinese it marks a falling tone. Vowels with grave are included in the ISO standard character set in composite form.

Greyscale fonts

Fonts that use variations in intensity at the edges of the letters to suppress the effects of aliasing and thus improve the apparent sharpness and fineness of letterforms.

Grotesque (Grotesk)

The European term for Sans Serif styles. American printers call them Gothic. In England the abbreviation, grot, is frequently used.

Guillemets (French quotes, Chevrons)

Single and double quotes used as quotation marks with the Latin, Cyrillic and Greek alphabets in Europe, Asia and Africa. In French and Italian, the guillemets always point «out», but in German they more frequently point »in«. They are named probably after the name of the 16th century French punchcutter Guilliaume Le Be , who may have invented them.